Job Specialization

Job Specialization (Definition | Examples | Pros & Cons)

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Job Specialization Definition

A simple definition of Job Specialization is: it is a process of acquiring specific skills and knowledge of one particular area of works over a long period and being expertise in one task. In other words, one person or small group of persons specializes in one functionality in a vast process.

Job Specialization History and Overview

From ancient times to the modern business world, the specializing job is widely in use. In simple, this could also be described as splitting up the gigantic work process and giving the responsibility of each chunk of work to a different individual.

Working on the same set of work for a long time will gain knowledge, and the individual becomes the subject level expert. When we look back the history, there are lots of examples of job specialization in ancient Egypt. But nowadays the process has changed a little. But the concept is still the same.

There lots of advantages and disadvantages to this. We will talk about that later.

Example for Job Specialization

Example Story 1

There are tons of examples for mastering job. A benefit of job specialization is that it,  just look at the automobile industry. How many tasks are involved? Starting from building the hardware parts, assembles the part, painting, electronic device programming, test the vehicle, etc.

If all people engaged in the full process of work, there would be lots of difficulties. Because each task is very complicated, and people will miss some details.

As a solution for this company can train a small group of people for each process. When he works on the same thing, he will become an expert, and then work performance goes up. Furthermore, the person doesn’t have to worry about other tasks. He will complete the job and pass it into others.

Example Story 2

Similar to the automobile, apparel factories are also a perfect example. As an example, when deliver a shirt need to complete, draw the cut, complete collar, complete sleeves, assemble all, fix button, and packaging.The person who completes the sleeves doesn’t know about the other tasks of the process. He just needs to concentrate on his work.

Advantages of Job Specialization

1. High Productivity

The main advantage of mastering a task is boosting high performance. Along with time, a person will achieve high productivity. High productivity is a massive benefit to the company. On the other hand, from the employee side, he will focus on one specific task, and he will become a self-manageable person.

2. High Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction is really high when people specialize to one task. He can choose whatever the field he is good at master it. Hence the person doing what he loves the satisfaction of his work is undoubtedly higher than other jobs.

3. High Job Security

Although many people argue about this, I state that job security is higher than others for people who specialized on their job.  The person is highly motivated and expert on what he is doing. Because of that replacing him is a bit difficult. Even from the organisation’s side, hiring and training involve a high cost. So they will encourage people to be stray on their job.  In return, the organisation will be reward with less turnover.

Disadvantages of Job Specialization

1. Bored on the job

You are working on the same task without any variation. This situation could lead to job boredom. On the other hand, you have to increase productivity and achieve higher targets every day. As a result, you will meet the same set of people and less time to socialize with them.

2. Less Versatile

Being specialized in work make you less flexible on other tasks. Though you will become a master in one thing, you do not have the knowledge in case you have to work on other tasks. Your skills will be limited to a specific job. Not only that, when you are absent for the work, no one else can continue work. As a result, you tightly bound to your company. Less freedom to get leaves.

3. Risk Of Non Employment

As long as you working in the same workplace, you are an asset to the company and less chance of unemployment. But in case you are suspended or ban corrupt the company, it is tough to find a job. Unless someone offers a job that matches your skill set. Furthermore, switching jobs is not very easy.

4. Job-related Illness

Job-related illness is a topic that no one much talks about in society. But when looking closer to some jobs, it happens regularly. Working on the same task for a long time cause severe illness that the person could not work anymore. As an example, Welders might get eyesight problem, and scriptwriters may get back-bone issues, carrying heavy weight also get a backbone issue.


The final thought on job specialization is, it has more potential for the employee as well as for the company. But we can not neglect the bad side of it.  My personal view is the disadvantages of job specialization outweigh its advantage. But to continue business and increase its productivity, we must specialize people on each subject.

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